Parents Perception Regarding Immunization of Two Years Old Children: An Analysis of EPI Communication Campaign in Pakistan
This research study aimed to explore the parents' perceptions and knowledge with reference to child immunization under the expanded program of immunization. A sample of 200 couples was taken from different provinces of Pakistan, including Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan and KPK, by utilizing the convenient sampling technique. The findings of the study indicated that the young couples had more knowledge about the covered diseases, schedule of immunization and expanded the program of immunization. Mothers were having good knowledge of EPI, and their mean knowledge was greater than their counterparts. Similarly, employed and urbanized couples had also significant knowledge about the expanded program of immunization and its covered diseases. Television, radio and the internet were the leading and e ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Malik Adnan Assistant Professor, Department of Media Studies, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Irem Sultana Assistant Professor, Department of Mass Communication, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Ifra Iftikhar Associate Professor, Department of Mass Communication, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Immunization; Parents Perception; EPI Communication Campaign; EPI Knowledge
Impact of COVID-19 and Coping Policies Implemented by Higher Education Institutions in South-Asian Countries: Systematic Review
COVID-19 has disrupted not only human lives but also the quality of education especially in developing countries of the South- Asian region. This study elaborates the impact of COVID-19 on education sector and also illustrate the strategies followed by the management of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). The systematic review of 23 most relevant research studies shows that the Pandemic has affected students’ learning, mental, physical, social and economical conditions badly. Particularly, students who do not afford the use of technological appliances are suffering more. HEIs need to have a smart online syllabus for various subjects. Furthermore, HEIs need to review their communication channel and technical assistance. The strategies implemented by HEIs during COVID-19 are useful and sho ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Shaheen Fatima Department of Economics Lahore Leads University, Hailey College of Commerce, University of the Punjab, Lahore,Punjab, Pakistan.2-Nisar Ahmad Assistant Professor, Hailey College of Commerce, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. (Corresponding Author)3-Samreen Fatima Hailey College of Commerce, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The Effect of Financial Risk Tolerance and Family Income on Entrepreneurial Intention in Higher Education Sector of District Swabi
The study examines the effect of family income (FI)
and financial risk tolerance (FRT) on entrepreneurial
intention in students of Universities of the Higher Education Sector
located in district Swabi. This is an explanatory and co relational
study carrying a sample size of 330 out of the total of all 501
students from public and private Universities in Swabi. Financial
determinants are prominent aspects of the study contributing to
entrepreneurial intention. The study has established the
relationship between FI and FRT on EI of universities of the Higher
Education Sector located in district Swabi. The study is a
contribution to the rare work on the relationship between financial
determinants and entrepreneurial intention. The study revealed
that FI and FRT significantly affect ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Rehan Zeb MS Scholar, Department of Management Sciences, University of Swabi, KP, Pakistan.2-Naveed Hussain Shah Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, University of Swabi, KP, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Arif Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, University of Swabi, KP, Pakistan.
Family income (FI), Financial risk tolerance (FRT), Entrepreneurial intention (EI)
Relationship Between Green Marketing Determinants and Consumer Buying Behavior: Mediating Role of Environmental Awareness
Global warming is indeed one of the significant problems the planet is currently facing. In order to cope with global warming concerns the green practices are introduced around the globe that is associated with waste reduction, resource conservation and healthy living are considered to be important. Therefore, consumers are more intended to purchase the green-products. Researchers reported that the principles of green marketing and environmental consumer behavior have not been explored in a collaborative way. The targeted population is the consumers of the shopping malls of urban areas of Pakistan. The data were collected via questionnaire and collected data was analyzed through hierarchal regression. The findings exhibited that the green marketing practices, i.e. (green ads, eco-labeling, ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Fazli Haq PhD Scholar, IQRA National University, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan. 2-Adil Adnan Associate Professor, Business Administration Department of Business Administration, IQRA National University, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Arif Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, University of Swabi, KP, Pakistan.
The Impact of Corporate Governance Practices on the Firm Financial Performance of the Non-Financial Firms
The study focuses on whether the Corporate
Governance characteristics influence the firm
performance of Non-Financial Firms in Pakistan. In this study,
three types of industries like pharmaceutical, cement, and food
were analyzed from the Pakistan Stock Exchange for the period of
2010 to 2019. The authors used the diagnostic test on data that
argued that the model is better, like the fixed effect model or
random-effect model for analysis. Multiple regression-based
methodologies were developed to use a fixed-effect model for both
dependent variables, Return on Assets and Tobin-Q variables, to
discover the association between corporate governance and firm
performance. It is concluded that board size, board education
board experience, board nationality and board compensation have
...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Ishtiaq Ahmad Department of Business Administration, Iqra National University, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.2-Bibi Aisha Sadiqa Department of Economics, Hazara University, Mansehra, KP, Pakistan.3-Rashid Khan Faculty of Management Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.
Renewable Energy Option for Socio-Economic Development in Pakistan
An uninterrupted supply and easy access to energy
are necessary for the economic and social
development of a country. It can only be possible by careful
management of available energy and including the increased share
of clean, renewable energy (RE) in the overall energy supply. A
substantial reduction in the use of fossil fuel can also help to
mitigate the global environmental effects. Pakistan has been
suffering from a severe energy crisis for the last many years that
has badly affected its industrial sector, and consequently, a
substantial reduction of economic growth is witnessed in the
country. This paper explores the alternative opportunities of energy
supply in Pakistan by highlighting the available potential of nonfossil energy resources. It also highlights the present s ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Muhammad Tahir Hassan Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muqarrab Akbar Chairman, Department of Political Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Shumaila Dilawar Lecturer, Institute of Management Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.
Shifting National Security Paradigm of Pakistan from Geo Politics to a Geo Economics Era
Pakistan being one of the most populous Muslim
states, is characterized by unique features. It is home
to the seventh-largest army in the world, but strangely enough, it
stands in 2018 (slightly better than previous rankings )as one of the
20th most fragile nations of the world. Pakistan bears a key
geopolitical position in South Asia, linking it with the Middle East,
surrounded by Russia, China, India, and Iran as well.
Traditionally, Pakistan national security has been analyzed
through geopolitical and geostrategic perspectives, but with the
primacy of economic factors, the geo-economic approach has taken
the lead in analyzing the national security of Pakistan. Most
underdeveloped and developing countries heavily depend upon
external resources and regional connectivity for ec ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Shabnam Gul In-Charge, Department of International Relations, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Muhammad Faizan Asghar MPhil, Peace & Counter Terrorism Studies, Minhaj University Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Munib Khalid Assistant Professor, Minhaj University Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Geo- Economics, National Security, India, Afghanistan
A Project of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor: A Case study of Significant and Drawbacks for Pakistan
The corridor is significant to Pakistan's economic
progress as well as the growth of Gilgit-Baltistan
and Azad Kashmir. The corridor is a major transportation
connection between Beijing and Islamabad that links them through
land and rail routes; this project benefits the Asian and Middle
Eastern countries by promoting trade and tourism between
Pakistan and China. On April 20, 2015, it started with a $46
billion budget and had since grown to a total budget of $62 billion
in 2017. Pakistan includes a road and rail network, power plants,
and a unique economic sector. This proposal makes it possible to
resolve oil and gas shortages, as well as economic and geopolitical
scope. This massive project encourages stability, economic
development, energy fortification, sustainable progress ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Muhammad Ismail Research Scholar, Department of Political Science, Federal Urdu University, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Risk of Foreign Exchange Exposure of Stock Returns Concerning Non-Financial Listed Firms
The foreign exchange rate fluctuations do create an
impact on stock returns, which has been
investigated for non-financial listed Pakistani firms. The real
effective exchange rate has been used as the true measure of foreign
exchange exposure. The modelled econometric equation includes;
firm size, firm liquidity, money supply and inflation as predictors
of stock returns. Twenty-five non-financial listed firms have been
evaluated for the study period 2004 to 2013, which signifies the
military regime era proceeded by peoples party rule in Pakistan.
Financial data analysis, including; ADF unit root and Johansen
Co-integration tests, have been applied to evaluate financial data,
which further led to correlation, descriptive stats and panel data
regression analysis. The results have ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Syed Muhammad Ali Tirmizi Associate Professor, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan. 2-Muhammad Jawad Haider PhD Scholar, Faculty of Management Sciences, International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Shahab Ud Din Assistant Professor, Department of Business Management, Karakoram International University, Ghizer Campus, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.
Examining Empirical Relationship among Service Quality, Reputation and Brand Loyalty: Important Role of Satisfaction
The study in hand attempts to investigate the
intervening role of satisfaction on service quality and
reputation relationship with brand loyalty in the hotel industry of
Pakistan. The sample of the current research was customers of the
hotels operated in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. Based on convenience
sampling, a total of 400 respondents were selected. A total of 356
questionnaires were received back, from which 345 were usable.
Data were collected from the targeting customers through a
structured questionnaire. The instrument validity and reliability
were checked. The study found that reputation and service quality
are significantly related to brand loyalty. The relationship between
service quality and brand loyalty is did not mediated by
satisfaction. Based on these results, the stu ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Umar Siddique PhD Scholar, Qurtuba University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Imran Assistant Professor, Qurtuba University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.3-Sajid Rahman Khattak Assistant Professor, IBMS, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.
Satisfaction, Service Quality, Brand Loyalty, Reputation, Hoteling Industry
Natural Resource Management and Nation Building in Pakistan: Agro-Commercialization in Tehsils of Colonial District Multan, Pakistan
Nation-building refers to the process of constructing
or structuring a national identity using the power of
the state. Natural resources and technologies associated with it and
their use have been an integral part of human life, as old as
civilization. The land formed the main ingredients of a natural
resource. Pakistan is fortunate because its soils, topography and
climate are generally suitable for farming, but its agriculture
sectors face the problem of scarcity of water in regions like Multan.
The development of irrigation resources was, therefore, one of the
major concerns of the Governments who ruled the region. Like other
Punjab districts, Multan witnessed the commercialization of agro
products and the growth of market towns following the extension of
irrigation and comm ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Abida Kausar Chuadhary Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of History and Pakistan Studies, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.
US Economic Sanctions: A Controversial Foreign Policy Tool in International Politics
In this current century, the use of economic sanctions
by the superpowers, particularly the US, has become
regular and aggressive. The US imposes sanctions and economic
embargoes on states and groups who do not follow US-designed
standards regarding manufacturing weapons, nuclear technology
and resolving international disputes. However, it has failed most
of the time to alter behaviour of the sanctioned countries. Sanctions
programs of Syria, Pakistan, Iran and North Korea are a few of the
many examples which prove the failure of American sanctions. This
qualitative research article examines the politics of the US behind
its sanctions policy along with negative impacts on targeted
countries. It also analyses Donald Trump's aggressive sanctions
policy, which is said as record-br ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Nimra Irfan MPhil Scholar, Department of Humanities, Greenwich University, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.2-Madiha Nawaz MPhil Scholar, Department of Humanities, Greenwich University, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.3-Sobia Jamil Visiting Faculty Member, Department of Humanities, Greenwich University, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Impact of Knowledge-based Program Management Resource on Social Enterprise Sustainability: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach
The focus of this research is to look at knowledge-based programme management resources as a starting point for investigating the relationship between Team programme management resources and social enterprise sustainability in underdeveloped countries. This article examines data from 300 programme management personnel of social businesses in Pakistan who responded to a self-administered and online survey. The link between team programme management resources and social business sustainability was investigated using structural equation modelling (CB-SEM). A total of 9 critical indicators of the team programme management assets have a substantial impact on the three sustainability pillars (Social, economic and environmental). This research contributes to the understanding of the relationship ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Arif-Ud-Din Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.2-Syed Mohsin Ali Shah Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Jahangir Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Sustainability, Program Management, Resource, Social Enterprise, Resource-Based View
Determinants of Corporate Cash Holdings in Textile Sector of Pakistan
This study analyzes the impact of tools used for cash
holding in the textile sector of Pakistan for the period
of 14 years (2005-2018). The tools consist of firm dimension,
influence, capital expenditure, expansion opportunity, liquidity,
cash stream and cash stream instability and extra expenditure.
Unbalanced dynamic panel data is engaged for empirical
estimation. For estimation of consistent result active panel
information i-e Two-step scheme widespread process of moments is
used. System generalized method of moments (GMM) design
estimation reveals that compact dimension control, capital
expenses, cash stream, cash stream instability and extra dummy
affect cash holdings positively while liquidity and growth
opportunities affect cash holdings negatively. Lagged cash is used
...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Hira Ali Khan MS Scholar2-Wisal Ahmad Assistant Professor, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan. 3-Ihtesham Ur Rahman Lecturer, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Cash Holding, Generalized Method of Moments, Textile Sector, Pakistan
Individual Investors' Financial Behaviour and Financial Attitude: Role of Financial Literacy as Moderator in Decision Making
As an individual investor, it is incredible to have a
successful performance return without financial
knowledge. An organization's performance must be measured and
analysed based on an adequate financial management system. In
today's multifaceted financial scenery Financial Literacy is crucial
as it does not only impact financial decisions at the business level
but is also important for the country's development. Financial
literacy has the importance of the backbone of society. The study
adds a new mechanism of financial literacy. The main objective of
this study is to determine further insight into the role of financial
literacy on an individual's behaviour and attitude towards
financial decision making. For analysis, the moderator impact of
financial literacy on decision-maki ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Sadaf Ambreen Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, Government College Women University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Laiba Khalid BBA, Department of Business Administration, Government College Women University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Aniqa Zubair Teaching Assistant, Department of Business Administration, Government College Women University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
A Study to Analyze the Determinants of Fast-food Restaurant Customer Loyalty thr..
Fast-food consumption has been raised tremendously recently and improving customer loyalty is the need of the hour. This study aims to analyze the factors that impact the loyalty of customers in fast-food restaurants. A theoretical model incorporated food quality, brand image, brand trust, and physical environment and analyze their influence on loyalty through the inventing construct of customer satisfaction. Total 240 complete responses were collected from consumers of three big fast-food international chains operating in Pakistan. The statistical tool Smart PLS 3.2.8 has been utilized to do partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The findings revealed that food quality, brand image, brand trust significantly impact customer loyalty, while the physical environment fou ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Atif Ali Gill Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, University of Sahiwal, Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan2-Muhammad Abdullah Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, University of Sahiwal, Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Hasnain Ali Department of Business Administration, University of Sahiwal, Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan.
Impact of Strategic Management Practices on the Business Performance of SMEs in Pakistan
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Pakistan are playing a significant role in the economic development, and performance of these SMEs is very crucial to the country. Therefore, the aim of current research is to check the significance of strategic management practices in the SMEs operating in the South Punjab of Pakistan. Three variables were created from the existing literature (strategy development,strategy implementation, and strategy evaluation). Convenient sampling has been used to collect primary data through self-administrative questionnaires. By exercising different Inferential Statistical Techniques, this paper has found a significant link between all the strategic management functions and business performance of selected SMEs in the South Punjab of Pakistan.For this purpose, I ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Muhammad Ishtiaq Assistant Professor, Lyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan2-Muhammad Shahid Tufai Professor, UE Business School, Division of Management and Administrative Sciences, University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan3-Anjum Hussain MS Scholar, Lyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
Strategic Management, Small and Medium Enterprises, Business Performance
Economic Sustainability and CO2 Emission in Pakistan: Revisiting the EKC Hypothesis
he public concern over the environmental degradation has received an increasing interest of the researchers in the last few decades. This paper intends to scrutinize the EKC hypothesis within the framework of the ARDL model over the period of 1976-2020. Along with ECM, different types of appropriate tests are also carried for the purpose of diagnosing the data and recognizing the pattern of causality. Findings reveal that growth in GDP per capita deteriorates the carbon emission at the initial stages of development but as economy grows it then helps in improving the quality of the environment. For environmental sustainability, the required level of growth threshold is calculated to be 4.61 Percent. This study also finds one-way causality running from GDP and energy consumption to CO2. Find ...Read More - Download PDF - View Fulltext
1-Minhajuddin Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan2-Sumaira Lecturer in Economics, Higher Education Department, KP, Pakistan3-Brekhana Gul Lecturer, Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Economic Sustainablity, CO2 Emisison, Pakistan, EKC Hypothesis, ARDL Model, GDP