Administration of the Indigenous Entrepreneurship Model on a Sample of Young Entrepreneurs

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This research applies the indigenous entrepreneurship model developed at the center for entrepreneurial development at IBA Karachi. This model is based on the pre-effectuation principles and effectuation theory of entrepreneurship. The model is different from the existing utilitarian models. The model signifies the importance of nation-building and family orientation to pursue an entrepreneurial journey. The efficacy of the model has been tested on a sample of 500 young participants (men and women) during the Entrepreneurship Programs. Effectuation and Pre-effectuation have been tested on a sample of 500 participants (including both men and women), and Nation-building and Family orientation is tested amongst the sample of women only. The paper reveals the impact of entrepreneurial mindset training and coaching in Karachi and Faisalabad.  For the efficacy of the indigenous entrepreneurship model, the research paper presents the sample case studies.                          


Key Words

Entrepreneurship, Indigenous Entrepreneurship Model, Effectuation, Young Entrepreneurs, Nation Building.



Youth Entrepreneurship concept is actively promoted all around the world and especially in developing countries such as Pakistan (Asad, Ali & Islam (2014). It is considered to be a long term investment in the country’s asset. The economy of a country; like Pakistan whose economy is deflating with a sharp loose run, the youth entrepreneurship is such an important priority. According to the Global Entrepreneurship monitor (2010) report, Pakistan is falling behind in creating more jobs, and for that, the lagging in starting up the very own venture is a threat to the economy. One deal is that the most of the times the young graduates prefer going for a job than making their way out to create entrepreneurship opportunities in the market full of competition, the reason behind this revolves around the risk-taking factors especially in the economy which is already draining, the young graduates refrain from establishing a venture which could not help them get all over the market. The idea behind the promotion of the youth entrepreneurship was that the youth consider putting their plans on the eco-metrics plate of the country as a worthwhile option than falling in the hands of inflation.

To help and encourage more entrepreneurship talent in the young adults, the Islamabad chamber of commerce and industry recently introduced a new workshop which comprised of the theme ‘Inspiring a new wave of entrepreneurship’ (ICCI, 2019). The main objective of this forum, established in 2008, was to create a platform for the young generation to nurture their leadership qualities and bring the entrepreneurship skills to the big market.

Shell Tameer has been another arising platform for the youth of Pakistan (Mashud, 2019). Through the stage of INVENT organized in IBA (Institute of Business Administration) in 2019, Shell Tameer had the vision to foster a startup-friendly environment for young adult across Pakistan. The innovators went through a series of workshops and mentoring sessions to bring out the hidden entrepreneurship talent in one individual, so the startup ecosystem is no more considered a risk in the market.

Foster learning Pakistan is the social enterprise with international collaborations which aims to empower the young generation through its leadership programs which help to develop and groom the skills which are necessary to have a career as a successful entrepreneur. The motive of this revolutionizing organization is to establish self-confidence in the youth to deal with the circumstances and hardship along the path of becoming a great entrepreneur.

MIT enterprise forum Pakistan has launched a startup school for the young adults to train themselves as the bright future of the country, it has also set up a platform to provide resources and tools for the born in entrepreneurs to better complement their ventures and innovate something resourceful for the economy of Pakistan.


Theoretical Model

In the year 2014, IBA Center for Entrepreneurial Development (CED) became one of the pioneers in launching a Women Entrepreneurship Program in Pakistan.

In contrast to the single women empowerment model of the west and after seeing the socially-inclusive family system within Pakistan, IBA CED came up with an indigenous women entrepreneurship model in-line with the Pakistani culture context. The aim was to train and facilitate the Pakistani women to become Nation Builders by leveraging their innate entrepreneurial capabilities, hobbies, passion, family and networks.  IBA AMAN CED in 2018 trained 500 participants enrolled in the Youth Employment Project (YEP).

The IBA CED indigenous theoretical model comprises of 4 major pillars:



This pillar is based on two things: “Khudi /self” and “purpose”. The model has proposed that women need to recognize their “self,” i.e., hidden potential and should have a meaningful purpose while pursuing a business idea. Allama Iqbal’s poetry reveals the concept of “Khudi/self” as a divine inspiration, which every individual has within. There is an opportunity for educators, to energize the women through Iqbal’s poetry and boost up their confidence and entrepreneurial spirit.



Effectuation is an important part of becoming an entrepreneur (Fisher, 2012). It is a way of thinking which contributes to the entrepreneur’s identification of opportunities and innovation. It pertains to a set of decision-making principals which help entrepreneurs in their choices in times of uncertainty (Fisher, 2012). A situation like that would include a time when goals are not clearly defined, the future of the venture is uncertain, and there is no set selection mechanism for making choices. The term “Effectuation” was principally introduced by Saras Saravathy in the year 2001. She conducted research in 1997 with her subject being 45 expert entrepreneurs (Dew, Read, Sarasvathy & Wiltbank, 2011). She studied them and their choices and decision making criteria and skills. She noticed that most of them employed effectual thinking as compared to casual thinking.

Causation was observed to be the opposite of Effectuation (Villani, Linder, & Grimaldi, 2018; Reymen, Berends, Oudehand & Stultiëns, 2017). Effectuation stresses the use of resources at hand and the utilization of these resources to the maximum. Causation is the opposite. In casual thinking, the decision-maker makes the decision first and then employs his or her skills to find the resources as a means to its ends. Saras Sarasvathy further builds upon the effectuation logic by coming up with five core effectuation principles to employ in the process. These are; a bird in the hand, affordable loss, quilt, lemonade and pilot in the plane principle (Read, Sarasvathy, Dew & Wiltbank, 2016). The concept that has been proposed in this research is based on the effectuation theoretical mindset. Our model proposes that women are the nation builders of society; they play a critical role in their families and can engage their families in their businesses. The role of effectuation is of crucial importance in nation-building, family orientation and launch of the business. It is not necessary that these women should invest a lot of money and resources before actually launching a business. These women need to recognize their “bird in the hand” as effectuation theory explains (Read, Sarasvathy, Dew & Wiltbank, 2016). Women need to visualize their personal skills, competencies, abilities and the resources available within their surroundings. They then can utilize these resources and start a new venture. The crazy quilt principle of effectuation elucidates the concept of self-selected partners. Collaborations can be made by the women by engaging their family members in their businesses (Read, Sarasvathy, Dew & Wiltbank, 2016). Surprisingly, the lack of money turned out to be a noteworthy resource for women, and they come out with something entirely creative and innovative. There is a dire need for educational institutes to create effectual mindsets in society.



Family orientation and entrepreneurship have a strong association between (Lindvert et al., 2017). The women are part of family businesses across the globe (Dugan, Krone, LeCouvie, Pendergast, Kenyon-Rouvinez & Schuman, 2016). These women engage their families to launch an entrepreneurial venture (Edelman, Manolova, Shirokova & Tsukanova, 2016). However, a multitude of challenges is associated with this family orientation business. In our proposed model, incorporation of effectual reasoning can be seen with entrepreneurship and women engaging their families to assist them in their entrepreneurial journey.


Nation Building

History reflects that women did not limit their roles to themselves but have contributed to the larger picture and context of nation-building. The German mothers and grandmothers played an important role after world-war-II as they took the responsibility of rebuilding the nation after the war. Moreover, from an Islamic perspective, the life of the great women like Aisha, Hajira, Asia, Mariam, Khadija (may Allah be pleased with them all) played a very important role. They were not only supporting their families but were engaged in nation-building activities.

Moreover, Hippler (2005) proposed the concept of nation-building. Women serve as nation builders. They are key players in society. Pakistani women are engaged in raising their children (Duflo, 2012). They nourish their skills and make them a better individual. Our model proposes that these Pakistani women can do wonders in upbringing their children, creating a social change in the society and by playing their part in nomination-building addition, they can help the economic development of Pakistan by going beyond selfishness.




IBA-UNDP Youth Entrepreneurship Program (YEP) Karachi 2018

Program Details

In the year 2018, IBA CED launched an entrepreneurial training program for the youth of Karachi in collaboration with United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Pakistan.

The training facilitated 500 vulnerable youth in marginalized areas of Karachi. Building on IBA's extensive experience of working with Entrepreneurs throughout Pakistan, the IBA-UNDP Youth Employment Project (YEP) provided these young men and women with opportunities to acquire entrepreneurial skills and to start their own small-scale businesses. The potential beneficiaries were the students and graduates of various technical training programs at STEVTA Technical Training Institutes and other Technical Training Institutes in Karachi.

The program encompassed training on various modules including Development of an Entrepreneurial mindset, Start-up Business Model Canvas, Basic IT Skills, Marketing & Sales, Operations, Basic Finance Concepts in Business context, Soft Skills, Law and the Development, refinement and presentation of Business action plans.


Research Method

Qualitative and Quantitative



Entrepreneurial Mindset Training during the course of two months (Nov to Dec, 2018). However, the program extended to a duration of six months.


Sampling Technique

Non-Probability Convenient Sampling Technique.


Study Population

Vocational Education and Training Institutes of Karachi (Pakistan) including Govt. Vocational Training Center (Girls), Shanti Nagar, Govt. Vocational Training Center (Boys), Jacob Lines, Govt. Vocational Training Institute (Boys), Landhi, GTC Karim Abad, Skill Development Council (SDC), Aman Tech, Al-Zohra Foundation, Rangoonwala, Monotech Institute, Govt. Vocational Training Institute (Boys), Sector 42, Korangi, Govt. Vocational Training Center (Boys), Qasimabad, Liaqatabad, Govt. Vocational Training Center (Boys), Liyari, Memon Industrial and Technical Institute, Gul e Raana, North Karachi Vocational Centre etc.


IBA Women Entrepreneurship Program (WEP) Faisalabad, 2019

IBA Center for Entrepreneurial Development (CED) collaborated with Interloop Limited and Government College Women University (GCWU) to launch the “IBA Women Entrepreneurship Program (WEP)” in Faisalabad.



        The women from any college, university or vocational training institute of Faisalabad was eligible to apply.

        The minimum educational requirement for this course was education up to class 12.

        The minimum age requirement was 18 years.

        Total of 52 participants was trained

The training of the participants was carried out in six days, and a hand-holding session spread over two months.

The details of the classroom sessions are as follows:

Day 1 and 2: Entrepreneurship and the Entrepreneurial Mindset

Day 3 and 4: Business Startup Model, Accounting Basics, Selling and Marketing

Day 5 and 6: Hand holding sessions

Day 7: Entrepreneurial life skills (Mindset, Innovation and Quality)

Day 8: Business Model presentations and Demo Day


Measures and Constructs


Research Method

Research Questionnaire




Meaning and Purpose Test

·    Meaning and Purpose




(12 Questions)

·    Planning

·    Adaptation

·    Vision

·    Effectuation

Nation Building



(12 Questions)

·    Self-Centred

·    Nation-building oriented /Centered

·    Nation-building cum Self- Centered

·    Self cum Nation Building Centered


Family Orientation



(9 Question)

·    Self-Centred

·    Family Oriented/Centered

·    Family cum Self-Centered

·    Self cum Family-Centered



Demographic Analysis

A total of 500 participants were part of the study; however, after the completion of data collection, a total of 50 questionnaires were discarded due to unfilled questionnaires. There were 50% men and 50% women in the sample.

The participant’s part of this research belonged to different levels of income, as shown in the graph below. Maturity of the respondents belonged to the income range of 23,000 to 35,000 PKR.


The educational status of the participants was recorded. The sample shows that majority of the participants had a metric level of education.



Quantitative Data Analysis


PAVE Test Analysis




Mean (SD)

Sig. (2-tailed)

Pair 1

Pre-Planning (P)

32.61 (6.81)


Post-Planning (P)

28.97 (7.03)

Pair 2


23.77 (5.23)


Post-Adaptability (A)

25.24 (5.66)

Pair 3

Pre-Vision (V)

28.5 (5.73)


Post-Vision (V)

26.81 (5.45)

Pair 4

Pre-Effectuation (E)

34.95 (7.64)


Post-Effectuation (E)

39.03 (8.23)

Pair 5

Pre-P + A

56.37 (7.26)


Post-P + A

54.01 (7.67)

Pair 6

Pre-V + E

63.3 (7.35)


Post-V + E

65.73 (7.93)

Pair 7

Pre-P + V

61.1 (7.65)


Post-P + V

55.61 (8.55)

Pair 8

Pre-A+ E

58.6 (7.90)


Post-A+ E

64.06  (8.65)


The results from the PAVE test are recorded in the table above in the form of means and standard deviations. This data is for 500 participants with an equal number of men and women. Pair 1 is pre and post planning (P) has Mean and Standard Deviation (S.D) of 32.61 (6.81) and 28.97 (703), respectively. Pair 2 is pre and post-Adaptability (A) and has the values of 23.77 (5.23) and 25.24 (5.66). Pair 3 is pre and post Vision (V) 28.5 (5.73) and 26.81 (5.45). Pair 4 is pre and post Effectuation (E) with values 34.95 (7.64) and 39.03 (8.23). Pair 5 is pre, and post Planning + Adaptability has values 56.37 (7.26) and 54.01 (7.67). Pair 6 is pre and post V + E with values 63.3 (7.35) and 65.73 (7.93). Pair 7 is pre and post P + V with values 61.1 (7.65) and 55.61 (8.55). Lastly, Pair 8 is pre and post A + E with values 58.6 (7.90) and 64.06 (8.65). These results were tested using non-parametric paired sample t-tests, and the p-values obtained were used to conclude which of the pairs are significant and which aren’t. It can be seen from the data that all eight pairs have the p-value 0.000, which means that they are all significant. This table justifies that the efficacy of the effectual indigenous model. The participants developed an effectual mindset in reality based on the training provided to them.


Analysis of family-centred Constructs



Mean (SD)

Sig. (2 tailed)

Pair 1

Pre-Self-Centred (SC)

13.79 (5.65)


Post-Self-Centered (SC)

13.33 (3.46)

Pair 2

Pre-Self-Centered Cum family-centred (SCFC)

24.15 (5.89)


Post-Self-Centered Cum family-centred (SCFC)

22.02 (5.94)

Pair 3

Pre-Family Centered Cum Self-Centered (FCSC)

23.92 (5.87)


Post-Family Centered Cum Self-Centered (FCSC)

26.61 (5.32)

Pair 4

Pre-Family Centered (FC)

28.08 (7.69)


Post-Family Centered (FC)

27.95 (6.43)

Pair 5


37.66 (8.97)


Post-SC + SCFC

35.35 (6.82)

Pair 6


51.96 (9.15)


Post-FC + FCSC

54.58 (6.78)

The family orientation of the participants enrolled in the YEP were tested through a non-parametric t-test. The data comprising of the mean, standard deviation and the p-values are shown in the table above. The pre-family centred Mean (SD) is found to be 28.08 (7.69) and for Post-Family Centered (FC) is found to be 27.95 (6.43). Pre-Family Centered Cum Self-Centered (FCSC) and Post-Family Centered Cum Self-Centered (FCSC) revealed a value of 23.92 (5.87) and 26.61 (5.32) respectively. The mean and standard deviation values for Pre-FC + FCSC, Post-FC + FCSC, Pre-Self-centered (SC) and Post-Self-centered (SC) is found to be 51.96 (9.15), 54.58 (6.78), 13.79 (5.65) and 13.33 (3.46), respectively. Likewise, the mean and standard deviation for Pre-Self-centered Cum family-centred (SCFC), Post-Self-centered Cum family-centred (SCFC), Pre-SC + SCFC and Post-SC + SCFC are found to be 24.15 (5.89), 22.02 (5.94), 37.66 (8.97) and 35.35 (6.82) respectively. A paired sample t-test has been applied to the given sample. The mean and standard deviation for pre and post-family-centred effectual mindset is found to be 179.59 (3.15), and 179.86 (1.90).

It can be checked from the data which pairs had results that were significant and which were insignificant. Pair 1, which includes pre and post self-centred (SC) has the p-value of 0.374 and is found to be statistically insignificant. Pair 2 of pre and post-self-centred cum family centeredness (SCFC) has a p-value of 0.001 is found to be significant. The p-value of the third pair, which comprises of pre and post – family-centred cum self-centred (FCSC) is 0.000, which shows that the result is significant. The fourth pair of pre and post – family-centred (FC) has a p-value of 0.861 is insignificant. Pair 5 includes pre and post-SC + SCFC and has the p-value of 0.011, which is significant. Similarly, pair 6 and 7 of pre and post-FC + FCSC has shown a significant p-value of 0.006.


Analysis of Nation Building Constructs



Mean (SD)


Pair 1

Pre-Self-Centred (SC)

20.82 (8.70)


Post-Self-Centered (SC)

18.95 (6.12)

Pair 2

Pre-Self-Centered Cum Nation Building (SCNB)

26.45 (8.20)


Post-Self-Centered Cum Nation Building (SCNB)

24.36 (6.70)

Pair 3

Pre-Nation Building Cum Self-Centered (NBSC)

36.25 (9.73)


Post-Nation Building Cum Self-Centered (NBSC)

37.86 (8.25)

Pair 4

Pre-Nation Building (NB)

36.26 (9.70)


Post-Nation Building (NB)

37.97 (10.65)

Pair 5

Pre- SC + SCNB

47.27 (16.07)


Post- SC + SCNB

43.31 (10.62)

Pair 6


72.52 (15.88)


Post-NB + NBSC

75.84 (10.72)


The questionnaire made on nation-building has been tested via the statistical procedure of paired sample t-test. The table above represents the data, including the means and standard deviations for the pre and post-assessment. This data was analyzed using the SPSS-23 software for statistical analysis. The data given is for 500 participants, including both men and women in equal ratio. These participants were part of the Young Entrepreneurs Program. From that data, it can be noted that the Mean (S.D) for pair one that comprises of pre-self-centred and posts self-centred is 20.87 (8.70) and 18.95 (6.12) respectively. The Mean (S.D) value for Pre-Nation Building Cum Self-Centered (NBSC) and Post-Nation Building Cum Self-Centered (NBSC) is found to be 26.45 (8.20) and 24.36 (6.70) respectively. The Pre-NB + NBSC results reveal a Mean (S.D) value of 36.25 (9.73) and Post-NB + NBSC shows 37.86 (8.25) Mean (S.D) value. The self-centred pre and post constructs show a Mean (S.D) value of 36.26 (9.70) and 37.97 (10.65) respectively. The Pre-Self-Centered Cum Nation Building (SCNB) is found to be 47.27 (16.07), and Post-Self-Centered Cum Nation Building (SCNB) is found to be 43.31 (10.62). The Pre- SC + SCNB and Post- SC + SCNB revealed a value of 72.52 (15.88) and 75.84 (10.72) respectively.

The p-value for pre-self-centred and post-self-centeredness are found to be 0.025, which is statistically significant. The p-value for pair two that is pre -SCNB and post- SCNB is 0.025, which is once again statistically significant. Moving on pair 3 with pre-NBSC and post – NBSC has a p-value of 0.048, which is statistically significant. Pair 4’s p-value, consisting of pre- Nation Building (NB) and post-Nation Building (NB), is 0.18,7, which is statistically insignificant. P-value of the comparison between pre-SC + SCNB and Post-SC + NBSC, which is pair five, is found to be 0.016, this is statistically significant. Pair 6 of Pre-NB + NBSC and Post-NB + NBSC has a p-value of 0.047, which is statistically significant.


Qualitative Analysis


The qualitative assessment has been performed through meaning and purpose test questionnaire and case study analysis.


Meaning and Purpose Test Thematic Analysis


In the meaning and purpose test, the participants are inquired about the meaning/purpose of life. They are inquired about their skills and abilities that boosted up during the course. The women are trained through “Allama Iqbal’s poetry and Urdu literature-based case stories, as mentioned in the theoretical framework. The women entrepreneurs are reinforced to create unique entrepreneurial ventures, with the minimum resources available. However, these businesses should posit meaningful outcomes in their 

During the interview, participants are inquired about their experiences gained during the course and impact on “self”. The students are opined that they got a chance to reveal their internal entrepreneurial talents and skills. They realize that life purpose is not just acquiring knowledge and do job/business, but also help society. The women entrepreneurs are motivated to utilize this knowledge and improve their hidden talents and skills. Their meaning of life has changed. They realize that family can participate significantly in their business. Their ventures must be beyond profits, and they need to work for the society, for social change, and beyond selfishness.


Influencing “Self and Purpose” of Women Entrepreneurs through Effectual Reasoning      

The women entrepreneurs are found enthusiast and motivated to acquire training in

this course. One of the women entrepreneurs mentioned;

“This course has enabled me to recognize my skills and abilities. I am thankful to be a part of this course, as the “effectuation principles” and “who am I?” concept helped me in recognizing my own self”.

Most of the women entrepreneurs mentioned that they did not know that they could start their business. They belong to low-income families and have faced challenges regarding conservative family mindset. The women are opined that their families are now supporting them in their entrepreneurial journey. Iqbal’s poetry has motivated them, and entrepreneurial case studies created awareness about self-respect and dignity. The participants are opined that their way of thinking has changed after acquiring this course. They mentioned that the course had influenced their perceptions about the business. They got aware that they can work with minimum resources available, and substantial monetary value is not required.


Conclusion and Recommendations

The research has been carried out on a sample of 500 participants enrolled in the UNDP Youth Employment Project and Women Entrepreneurship Program. An indigenous model of entrepreneurship has been applied to the given sample. The indigenous model of entrepreneurship developed at IBA AMAN CED has been tested. Four tools have been applied to test the efficacy of the Indigenous Entrepreneurship Model. The results of the PAVE test analysis via t-test has shown that a significant difference in Planning (0.000), Adaptability (0.000), Vision (0.000) and Effectuation (0.000) after the training. The analysis of family centeredness construct through t-test application and pre & post intervention has shown that a significant difference can be seen in the SCFC (0.001), FCSC (0.000), SC + SCFC (0.011) and FC + FCSC (0.006). Additionally, the nation-building mindset of the participants was tested through the application of t-test. The results show that a significant difference can be seen as per the pre & post-intervention in the SC (0.025), SCNB (0.025), NBSC (0.048), SC + SCNB (0.016) and NB + NBSC (0.047).

The research was conducted to develop an effectual mindset amongst the participants. The study revealed that a significant change appeared amongst the participant after the training. The indigenous model thus has many implications for youth, struggling to initiate a business. Pre-effectual mindset enables the participants to recognize their self and unleash their capabilities and potential.

In the country as Pakistan, it is recommended to launch programs that foster entrepreneurship. Globalization, increasing technological advancement and rising competition, demands the youth to launch entrepreneurial ventures and support themselves and their families. The IBA AMAN CED and UNDP based youth-oriented, as well as women-oriented programs, are found helpful in fostering entrepreneurship across Pakistan.


Appendix-1 Entrepreneurial Case Stories

Da’MaC – A Clothing Brand by Ubaida Sheikh

Ubaida Sheikh hailed from a humble background belonging to the lower-tier end of the bustling city of Karachi. She always had an inner artistic passion which motivated her to join a fashion designing course in Vocational Training Institute (VTI) Bufferzone even while pursuing her Intermediate. Ubaida wanted to develop her own world by pursuing her passion in stitching and fashion designing rather than going further in secretarial studies and job.

Ubaida’s fashion designing skills developed in her an entrepreneurial dream to open her own boutique but she always stepped back due to the fear of lack of resources. After completing her intermediate, she got an opportunity to enroll in UNDP Youth Employment Program (YEP) at Institute of Business Administration (IBA) Karachi. Like every other participant, Ubaida was totally unaware of the fact that this training will show her a concrete path and will fulfill her dream of starting a small-scale business.

The Effectuation theory along with several motivational entrepreneurial stories developed in her an effectual mindset of starting with the least amount of resources in hand. During the 2 months’ duration of the IBA-UNDP training, Ubaida started her own clothing brand by the name of “DaMac”. Under this, she started selling her own hand designed and stitched dresses - both simple as well as occasional dresses (bridal etc.) (see Exhibit 1 below).

Ubaida got her 1st customer within her neighborhood. She started off with zero investment as initially she used the available resources at home (old machine, threads etc.) while the customer brought her own fabric cloth, and Ubaida provided the stitching services only. Hence, she completed her first order of 10 customized dresses in which she earned a profit of PKR 5000. After the successful completion of Ubaida’s 1st order she used her bird-in-hand i.e. the people she knew around her, and asked her batch mate in IBA-UNDP class to design her logo and visiting card as a marketing tool (See Exhibit 2 below).  

Furthermore, during the end of the training program, Ubaida started master tailoring classes at home under the same venture after witnessing a need in the neighborhood. Under this nation building initiative, she started teaching both basic and advance stitching to other girls. This teaching initiative was taken by Ubaida as she believed in helping and spreading her knowledge (See Exhibit 3 below).

Starting from one customer, within a time span of few weeks the venture’s customer base increased to 8. Presently, Ubaida has made up to PKR 14000 as revenue. The founder’s future plan is to shift to an online platform in order to increase her exposure and clientele base.

Hence, Ubaida’s venture proved that how a successful business foundation can be laid with minimal amount of resources and with no heavy investment. IBA-UNDP Entrepreneurship training boasted Ubaida’s self-confidence, and gave her a platform where she identified and used her inner skills & passion to create a new world out of the limited resources that she had (see Exhibit 4 below).


Exhibit 1. Products Offered by Da’maC


Exhibit 2: Logo & Visiting card



Exhibit 3.


Artistic Heart – A Handicraft venture by Hina Rafi

Hina Rafi belonged to the lower-tier segment of Korangi 2 ½ in the bustling city of Karachi. She grew up in a family of seven individuals; including her parents, two brothers and three sisters. While her other siblings decided to pursue a job for a living, Hina wanted to do something creative and out-of-the-box. She completed Bachelors in Arts from a nearby institute and then pursued a Jute Crafting course from Memon Industrial and Technical Institute (MITI) as she wanted to polish the artistic sense within her.

  During this tenure, Hina got to know about an entrepreneurship training program organized by UNDP Pakistan in collaboration with Center for Entrepreneurship Development (CED) at Institute of Business Administration (IBA) Karachi. To further boast her self-confidence, Hina decided to participate in the training program. Luckily, she cleared the interview criteria and got enrolled in this 2 months’ entrepreneurship training. The platform helped to discover and to unleash her creativity and inborn skills. As Hina narrates: “I recognized my skills and passion and learned how to start a business on a small-scale with the help of the slack resources around me.”

Hina decided to start her own venture within her area of expertise i.e. Fine Arts. Hence, she visited various markets and approached various Home Decor shops in her nearby areas. This made her realize the pain area of the customers in market i.e. the need of low-cost home décor handicraft products. Moreover, she found out the increasing customer’s preference in Pakistan to buy handicrafts for home decoration. 

This motivated Hina to cater to this market need by making unique decorative items by hand while using recycled waste material. Within few days, she bought raw material from market (such as: pearls, wooden board, mirror, jute etc.) with an initial investment of PKR 1000 only. While using these as well as the material already available at her home, Hina made some unique hand-made décor items including: tissue boxes, mirrors and Flower Bouquet made of jute work (see Exhibit 1 below).

Hina’s first customer was made within her training class of IBA-UNDP, where the customer bought a jute tissue box from her. Since then, she started getting orders via word-of-mouth marketing within her family and friends. Moreover, to professionally introduce her business in the market Hina decided a brand name “Artistic Heart”, designed a logo and made a Facebook page to increase her clientele base (shown in Exhibit 2 below). Starting from a minimal investment of PKR 1,000 only, Hina has catered up to 10 customers and earned PKR 6,000 as revenue up till now. Even at the demo day (final presentations) at the platform of IBA-UNDP program Hina’s products were show-cased in front of renowned guests and one of her hand-made jute tissue boxes were bought by one of the guest present there.


Presently, Hina is the sole  owner of her business operating with full family support. As she expresses: “My family is extremely proud of my accomplishments and they have supported me in each and every step of my business growth.”

Hina now plans to take constant growth steps in her business while collaborating with like-minded people in her field; expanding her service portfolio and to become a Home Décor Specialist one day.


Exhibit 1. Products offered.


Figure 1
Figure 2
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Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8

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