Determining Achievements Motivation, Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture for Employee Performance with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) as Intervening in the Education Depa


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Abstract

There are problems with the performance of the Riau Islands Province Education Agency Employees. This study uses the judgmental technique (purposive) to get a sample of 122 employees. The results of calculations assisted SPSS version 22 and AMOS (Analysis Moment of Structural) version 24. Square Multiple Correlation whose value is respectively for Performance = 0.828, for Organizational Citizenship Behavior = 0.826. Square Multiple Correlation value for the Performance variable 82.8%. Thus it can be stated that the change in performance is determined by Achievement Motivation, Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior by 82.8%. For Organizational Citizenship Behavior R2 = 82.6%. Thus it can be stated that the change in Organizational Citizenship Behavior is determined by Achievement Motivation, Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture by 82.6%. With this research, the problem of the performance of the Riau Islands Province Education Agency Employee's performance has been answered.                                                                                                                                                         

Key Words

Achievement Motivation, Transformational Leadership, Organizational                               Citizenship Behavior (OCB), Organizational Culture, and Performance.

 

Introduction

Law Number 23 of 2014 has mandated the division of concurrent government affairs between the Central Government, Provincial Regions, and Regency / City Regions, one of which is related to education. To support the government program, human resources in an organization, especially the Education Office, play a vital role. Organizations must be able to build and improve performance in their environment by taking into account the real needs of a sound government system. For this reason, organizations must take several ways to create a work climate relevant to good governance, including increasing employee achievement motivation, transformational leadership, and unique organizational culture, thereby encouraging employees to become good citizens who support organizational goals.

Performance in organizations is the answer to the success or failure of organizational goals that have been set. An employee's performance is an individual thing because each employee has a different level of ability to do their job. Motivation has a close relationship with attitudes and behavior possessed by someone so that Motivation can be interpreted as a condition in one's self so that the person is motivated to do an activity or activity. Therefore, Motivation has the nature that will not be separated from human life itself. Humans individually have qualities of self-existence, background, and attitudes that differ from one another, so that the Motivation that arises in each individual is different.

Transformational leadership is leadership by making an effort to change awareness, inspire and inspire subordinates or members of the organization to spend extra energy in achieving organizational goals. Understanding the main tasks and functions of a leader will provide guidance, encouragement, and motivation to all members to achieve goals. If the interaction process works well, he will be able to create a productive culture in the organization while improving its performance.

Culture is essential for an organization because it will always relate to life in the organization. Organizational culture is a philosophy, ideology, values, assumptions, beliefs, hopes, attitudes, and norms that are shared and binding in a particular community. Learning in the organization will be determined by various conditions such as teamwork, leadership, characteristics of the organization, and regular habits. These habits represent the norms of behavior followed by members of the organization.

By the 2016-2021 Governor's Vision and Mission, one of the objectives of the Riau Islands Province Education Office is equal access to education and improvement in the quality of education services in secondary and individual schools. For this reason, the excellent and practical performance of its employees is needed. But in reality, the performance of the Riau Islands Province Education Office is felt to be not optimal because there are many obstacles encountered. These constraints include lack of employee motivation, whereby the level of attendance has decreased, late arrival, and task completion not been optimal.

 

Research Questions

The following research questions are aimed to answer in this study:

  1. Does Achievement Motivation determine Organizational Citizenship Behavior employees of the Riau Islands’ Province Education Office?
  2. Did the transformational leadership determine the Organizational Citizenship Behavior of the Riau Islands Province Department of education staff?
  3. Does organizational culture determine Organizational Citizenship Behavior employees of the Riau Islands’ Province Education Office?
  4. Does Achievement Motivation determine the Performance of Riau Islands’ Province Education Department employees?
  5. Does the Transformational Leadership Determine the Performance of Riau Islands’ Province Office of Education employees?
  6. Does Organizational Culture determine the performance of Riau Islands’ Province Education Department employees?
  7. Does the Organizational Citizenship Behavior determine the Performance of Riau Islands’ Province Department of Education employees?

 

Literature Review

 

Achievement motivation

 

The concept of achievement motivation was first formulated by Henry Alexander Murray. Murray uses the term need for achievement motivation, which he describes as a desire or tendency to do difficult things as quickly and as well as possible. Achievement motivation theory was later popularized by David Mc. Clelland, a social psychologist, and colleagues. According to him, Motivation for achievement (need for performance) is encouragement related to differences in the success or enthusiasm of a person in achieving a victory. The need for achievement is in the form of support to do activities faster, better, more productive, and more efficient than previous events, as well as the drive to surpass. This need in the Maslow hierarchy lies between the need for appreciation and the need for self-actualization. (Mangkunegara, 2013: 97). While Hasibuan (2009: 219), argues that achievement motivation is the giving of a driving force that creates someone's enthusiasm so that they want to work together, work effectively, and are integrated with all their efforts to achieve achievement and satisfaction.

 

Transformational leadership

 

According to Yukl (2010: 313), transformational leadership is a situation where the followers of a transformational leader feel trust, admiration, loyalty, and respect for the leader. They are motivated to do more than they initially expected. Meanwhile, according to Robbins and Judge (2008: 90), transformational leaders inspire their followers to put aside their interests for the good of the organization. They can have an extraordinary influence on their followers. Meanwhile, according to Wibisono (2017: 66), transformational leaders can pay attention to followers' concerns, and self-development needs to excite, awaken and inspire followers to make extra efforts to achieve group goals.

 

Organizational culture

 

According to Sembiring (2012: 41), organizational culture refers to a system of shared meanings shared by members that distinguish the organization from other organizations. According to Siswandi (2012: 71), corporate culture is the norms, beliefs, attitudes, and organizational philosophy. Learning is a unique system of values, ideas, and standards shared by members of an organization. Culture also becomes an essential cause of the effectiveness of the organization itself. Organizational culture is a set of values, beliefs, or norms that have long been applied, agreed, and followed by members of an organization as guidelines for behavior and solving organizational problems that can become positive energy, bringing the organization to a better direction.

 

 

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)

 

Robbins and Judge (2008: 40) define OCB as a choice behavior that does not form part of an employee's formal work obligations but supports the organization's effective functioning. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a term for employees who provide more value to the work that is their job and added value to the company. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) can be created by one of them through organizational culture (Kusdi, 2011: 111). According to Ristiana (2013: 57), organizational citizenship behavior is an attitude of employee behavior that is done voluntarily, sincerely, and happy without being governed and controlled by the company. OCB is a term used to identify employee behavior so that he can be called a good member.

 

The performance

 

Performance is the work achieved by a person in quality and quantity produced by an employee in carrying out their duties by the responsibilities given to him (Mangkunegara, 2013: 67). Sinambela (2012: 5) defines that employee performance is the ability of employees to do something or specific expertise. Employee performance is essential because performance will be known about how far the employee can carry out the tasks assigned to him. According to Moeheriono (2012: 95) Understanding, Performance or performance is a picture of the level of achievement of the implementation of a program of activities or policies in realizing the goals, objectives, vision, and mission of the organization as outlined through the strategic planning of an organization. Performance can be known and measured if an individual or group of employees/employees already have criteria or standards of success of benchmarks set by the organization. Therefore, if without the goals and targets set in the measurement, then the performance of a person or organizational performance may not be known if there are no benchmarks for success.

 

Framework

Figure 1: Research Framework Model

Hypothesis

                                                                     

The hypotheses in this study are as follows:

1.         Achievement motivation directly determines organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) at the Riau Islands Province Office of Education

2.         Transformational leadership directly determines organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of the Riau Islands Province Office of Education

3.         Organizational Culture directly determines organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) at the Riau Islands Province Office of Education

4.         Achievement motivation directly determines the performance of the Riau Islands Province Office of Education Staff

5.         Transformational leadership directly determines the performance of the Riau Islands Province Office of Education Staff

6.         Organizational Culture directly determines the performance of the Riau Islands Province Office of Education Staff

7.         Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) directly determines the performance of the Riau Islands Province Office of Education staff.

 

Research Methods

 

Research Types and Data Sources

 

This type of research is quantitative, with survey methods and questionnaires distributed to the Riau Islands Province Education Office employees. The data used in this study are primary data and secondary data.

 

Population

 

The population is a generalization of all subjects and objects of existing research. As for the community in this study are employees of the Riau Islands Province Education Office who do not hold structural positions with a total of 122 employees.

 

Sample

 

By the characteristics of the study, the samples needed are employees related to the research variables, so the non-probability sampling technique chosen is a judgmental (purposive) technique. This technique was selected to ensure that only samples that had certain elements predetermined by researchers would be taken as samples. In this study, the example was Riau Islands Province Education Department employees who did not hold structural positions with 122 respondents.

 

Data collection technique

 

For the analysis of the problem under study, the data collection is carried out using techniques:

1)    The distribution of questionnaires that contains questions from each research variable. Then the questions are weighted based on a Likert scale with a weighting of values ​​1 to 5.

2)    Document Study, namely studying and observing data or reports contained in the Riau Islands Province Education Office.

Research Variable

 

This study analyzes five main variables, namely achievement motivation (X1), transformational leadership (X2), and organizational culture (X3) as exogenous variables, organizational citizenship behavior (Y) as intervening variables, and performance (Z) as endogenous variables.

 

Data analysis method

 

In this study, the following analysis tools were used:

 

Validity and Reliability Test

 

The validity of an instrument item in this study was tested by comparing the Pearson product-moment correlation index with a significance level of 5%. If the Probability of a correlation result is less than 0.05 (5%), then it is declared valid, and vice versa is invalid. Reliability testing in this study is guided by the Cronbach Alpha value. The instrument can be reliable if it has a reliability coefficient of 0.6 or more. If alpha is smaller than 0.6, it is declared unreliable, and vice versa is said reliable. To analyze the data, SPSS version 22 was used.

 

Test Assumptions SEM

 

The analysis used by researchers in this study is path analysis by describing a flow chart that can make it easier to see the relationships to be tested. Data analysis was performed using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) method, and the software used for structural analysis was Amos version 24. In this step, the suitability of the model was evaluated by examining various Goodness of Fit criteria. For this reason, the first step taken is to assess whether or not the data used can meet the SEM assumptions. If these assumptions are met, the model can be tested. According to Ferdinand, the assumptions that must be fulfilled in the data collection and processing procedures were analyzed by SEM modeling (Andriani 2011: 53).

 

Discussion

Figure 2: Full Research Model

 

The Goodness of Fit Analysis

Based on test criteria, Chi-square (χ2), Relative Chi-square (χ 2 / df), RMSEA, GFI, AGFI, TLI, and CFI above and the Goodness of Fit value of the Amos for Windows version 24.0 processing as shown in Figure 2 above, the following table can be made:

 

Table 1. The goodness of Fit Evaluation

The goodness of Fit Index

Cut-of Value

Results

Model

Information

Chi-square (χ 2)

Is expected

small

550,938

Well

Relative Chi-square (χ 2 / df)

00 3.00

1,620 *)

Well

Probability

> 0.05

0,000

Not good

RMSEA

≤ 0.08

0.072 *)

Well

GFI

≥ 0.90

0.762

Marginal

AGFI

≥ 0.90

0.715

Marginal

TLI

≥ 0.94

0.937+)

Well

CFI

> 0.94

0.943 *)

Well

Noting the cut-of-value and goodness of fit results of the model in Table 4.25 above, four criteria fulfilled two marginals from the eight criteria used. The requirements met were Relative Chi-square (χ 2/ df), RMSEA TLI, and CFI, while the marginal ones are GFI and AGFI. Because there are four criteria fulfilled and two that are marginal from the eight standards required, the above model can be stated as a less good model (Solimun, 2002: 80 and Solimun, 2004: 71).

 

Table 2. Regression Weights: (Group number 1-Default model)

Estimate

SE

CR

P.

Label

ocb

<---

Motiv

.840

.192

4,385

***

par_27

ocb

<---

Leader

-.157

.115

-1,371

.170

par_28

ocb

<---

Culture

.476

.196

2,430

.015

par_29

perform

<---

Motiv

.448

.182

2,465

.014

par_24

perform

<---

Leader

.077

.093

.823

.411

par_25

perform

<---

Ocb

258

.115

2,243

.025

par_26

perform

<---

Culture

102

.156

652

.515

par_30

 

Table 3. Standardized Regression Weights: (Group number 1-Default model)

Estimate

ocb

<---

motiv

.716

ocb

<---

leader

-140

ocb

<---

culture

.322

perform

<---

motiv

.466

perform

<---

leader

.083

perform

<---

ocb

.315

perform

<---

culture

.087

 

Table 4. Squared Multiple Correlations: (Group number 1 - Default model)

Estimate

Ocb

.828

perform

.826

The regression analysis results both partially and jointly between achievement motivation variables, transformational leadership, and organizational culture on employee performance with organizational citizenship behavior as intervening in the Riau Islands Province Education Office as follows:

 

Achievement Motivation for Organizational Citizenship Behavior

From the results of the data analysis above, we can see the determination of latent variables Motivation Achievement (motiv) to the variable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has a standardized estimate (regression weight) of 0.716 with Cr (Critical ratio = identical to the t-value) of 4.385 on more Probability smaller than 0.05 (***). CR value 4.385> 2.00 and Probability = (***) <0.05 indicates that the determination of the latent variable Motivation Achievement (motiv) to the latent variable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is positive and significant. According to David Mc. Clelland (Mankunegara, 2013: 97), achievement motivation (need for achievement) is encouragement related to differences in the success or enthusiasm of a person in achieving success. The need for performance is in the form of assistance to do activities faster, better, more productive, and more efficiently than previous events. This theory is supported by the notion of Motivation, according to Wibisono (2017: 121), which defines Motivation as an internal state of the individual that gives birth to strength, excitement and dynamics, and directs behavior toward goals. From the results of this study, it appears that the Achievement Motivation of Riau Islands Provincial Education Department employees is quite good. Achievement Motivation encourages employees to do work outside of their job descriptions. This is in line with the theory of Organ (2006) which states that with internal and ongoing Motivation originating from within an individual due to the intrinsic need for achievement, competence, and affiliations that will bring up the Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). In line with previous research conducted by Lelia Paula Da Rosa Florindo et al. (2017), Work motivation has a significant positive effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB).

 

Transformational Leadership Towards Organizational Citizenship Behavior

 

Determination of latent variables Transformational leadership (leader) to the latent variable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has a standardized estimate (regression weight) of -0,140 with a Cr (Critical ratio = identical to the t-count value) of -1.371 at a probability = 0.170. CR value -1,371 <2,000 and Probability = 0.170> 0.05 indicate that the determination of the latent variable Transformational Leadership (leader) to the latent variable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is Negative and Not Significant. Transformational leadership does not determine Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). Based on the theory according to Yulk (2010: 313) states that transformational leadership is a situation where the followers of a transformational leader feel the existence of trust, admiration, loyalty, and respect for the leader, and they are motivated to do more than they initially expected. This was not seen in the results of this study. Transformational Leadership in the Riau Islands Province Education Office has not been able to foster enthusiasm/enthusiasm and Motivation of employees to help each other and do work outside of his job description. This can occur because the leader is still lacking in approaching employees, or leaders usually only trust a job only to certain people so that some employees feel unnoticed. The results of this study are inversely proportional to the research conducted by B.

 

Organizational Culture Against Organizational Citizenship Behavior

 

Determination of latent variables Organizational Culture of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has a standardized estimate (regression weight) of 0.332 with Cr (Critical ratio = identical to the t-count value) of 2,430 at probability = 0.015. CR value = 2,430> 2,000 and Probability = 0.015 <0.05 indicates that the determination of the latent variable Organizational Culture (culture) of the latent variable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is Positive and Significant. An organizational culture that is well embedded in an organization will provide a comfortable atmosphere for fellow employees to raise awareness about the tasks and vision of the organization that is supported by a strong organizational culture that supports the development of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) (Kusdi, 2011: 110). Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a term for employees who provide more value to the work that is their job and added value to the organization. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) can be created by one of them through organizational culture. The organizational culture in the Riau Islands Province Education Office looks quite good, where employees always help each other in doing work, supporting each other to achieve organizational goals. This is also supported by previous research conducted by Yohanas Oemar (2013) and Mareta Kemala Sari, Ika Hajriani (2015), which states that Organizational Culture has a positive and significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). The organizational culture in the Riau Islands Province Education Office looks quite good, where employees always help each other in doing work, supporting each other to achieve organizational goals. This is also supported by previous research conducted by Yohanas Oemar (2013) and Mareta Kemala Sari, Ika Hajriani (2015), which states that Organizational Culture has a positive and significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). The organizational culture in the Riau Islands Province Education Office looks quite good, where employees always help each other in doing work, supporting each other to achieve organizational goals. This is also supported by previous research conducted by Yohanas Oemar (2013) and Mareta Kemala Sari, Ika Hajriani (2015), which states that Organizational Culture has a positive and significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB).

 

Achievement Motivation on Performance

 

Determination of latent variables Achievement Motivation (motiv) on latent variables Performance (perform) which has a standardized estimate (regression weight) of 0.466 with Cr (Critical ratio = identical to the t-count value) of 2,465 at probability = 0, 014. CR value 2,465 > 2,000 and Probability = 0, 014 <0.05 indicates that the determination of latent variables Achievement Motivation (motiv) on latent variables Performance (performance) is Positive and Significant. The theory of David Mc supports this. Clelland, an expert in social psychology, achievement motivation (need for achievement) is an encouragement related to differences in the success or enthusiasm of a person in achieving success. McClelland, Edward Murray, Miller, and Gordon W research concluded that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and achievement/performance. This means that employees who have high achievement motivation tend to have high work performance/performance, and vice versa, if those with low work performance are possible because of low achievement motivation (Robbins, 2002). Previous research conducted by Baharuddin Siregar, Nurmaida Irawani (2017), and Ni Putu Darmayanti (2014) stated that there was a positive and significant influence on achievement motivation on performance.

 

Transformational Leadership Towards Performance

 

Determination of latent variables Transformational leadership (leader) to the latent variable Performance (perform) has a standardized estimate (regression weight) of 0.083, with Cr (Critical ratio = identical to the t-count value) of 0.823 at probability = 0.411. CR value 0.823 <2,000 and Probability = 0.411> 0.05 indicate that the determination of the latent variable Transformational Leadership (leader) to the latent variable Performance (performance) is Positive and Not Significant. From this research, it shows that the Transformational Leadership variable does not predominantly determine performance. In theory Robbins and Judge (2008: 90), transformational leaders are leaders who inspire their followers to put aside their interests for the good of the organization and can have an extraordinary influence on their followers. Leaders with Transformational Leadership style at the Riau Islands Province Education Office already able to use his authority to direct his subordinates in doing some of their work in achieving organizational goals but has not inspired and provided significant influence. The results of this study differ from research conducted by Stanley Senewe (2013), where Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior simultaneously have a positive and significant effect on Employee Performance.

 

Organizational Culture on Performance

 

Determination of latent variables Organizational Culture (culture) against latent variables Performance has a standardized estimate (regression weight) of 0.315 with Cr (Criticalratio = identical to the t-count value) of 0.652 at probability = 0.515. CR value 0.652 <2,000 and Probability = 0.515> 0.05 indicates that the influence of the latent variable Organizational Culture (culture) on the latent variable Performance (performance) is Positive Not significant. This shows that the Organizational Culture of Riau Islands Province Education Department employees has a positive but not significant effect on organizational performance. The organization has a culture that regulates how employees act, work and take every decision. If the culture is good, it will affect employees to carry out their duties properly.

Conversely, if the culture hurts members and the organization, the employee's performance will be less useful. Good organizational culture has not been seen significant in the Riau Islands Province Education Office because it can be caused by a large number of employees and honorary, resulting in many different backgrounds, mindset, character, habits, and beliefs that ultimately affect Organizational Culture. The results of this study are inversely proportional to the results of previous studies conducted by Ahmad Mubarak, Susetyo Darmanto (2016) which states there is a positive direct effect of organizational culture on employee performance, and also research from Ujang Wawan Sam Adinata (2015) namely Organizational Culture Has a Significant Effect on Employee Performance. According to Trang (2013: 210), Organizational culture has a vital role in improving employee performance, because it functions as binding on all components of the organization, determines identity, energy injections, motivators, and can be used as guidelines for members of the organization, which can be a positive energy that able to bring the organization to a better direction.

 

Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Performance

 

Determination of the latent variable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) to the hidden variable performance has a standardized estimate (regression weight) of 0.315, with Cr (Critical ratio = identical to the t-value) of 2.224 at probability = 0.025. CR value 2,243 <2,000 and Probability = 0.025 <0.05 indicates that the influence of the latent variable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) to the hidden variable performance is positive and significant, so it can be said that Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) as a moderating variable determines the performance latent variable is positive and significant, so it can be said that the Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) as a moderating variable determines Achievement Motivation, Transformational Leadership, and Organizational Culture for Performance. In the theory of Robbins and Judge (2008: 40) defines OCB as a choice behavior that is not part of an employee's formal work obligations but supports the effective functioning of the organization. Through good organizational citizenship behavior, employees of the Riau Islands Province Education Office can show mutual assistance, support each other, and work optimally to achieve organizational goals, so that through these actions can encourage employee achievement motivation as well as employee performance. In line with this theory, Linda Kartini Ticoalu (2013) proves that Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has a significant effect on employee performance; besides that, Anom Suwibawa (2018) also demonstrates that Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has a positive influence on performance. Riau Islands Provincial Education Department employees can show mutual assistance, support each other, and work optimally to achieve organizational goals. Through these actions, they can encourage employee achievement motivation and employee performance. In line with this theory, Linda Kartini Ticoalu (2013) proves that Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB), has a significant effect on employee performance; besides that, Anom Suwibawa (2018) also confirms that Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has a positive influence on performance. Riau Islands Provincial Education Department employees can show mutual assistance, support each other, and work optimally to achieve organizational goals so that these actions can encourage employee achievement motivation as well as employee performance. In line with this theory, Linda Kartini Ticoalu (2013) proves that Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has a significant effect on employee Performance; besides that, Anom Suwibawa (2018) also shows that Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has a positive influence on performance.

 

Conclusion

 

Based on the results of the research analysis, the study can be concluded as follows:

1.     Determination of latent variables Motivation Achievement (motiv) of latent variables Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is positive and significant.

2.     Determination of latent variables Transformational leadership (leader) to the latent variable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is negative and not significant.

3.     Determination of the latent variable Organizational Culture (culture) of the latent variable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is positive and significant.

4.     Determination of latent variables Achievement Motivation (motiv) on latent variables Performance (performance) is Positive and Significant.

5.     Determination of latent variables Transformational leadership (leader) to the hidden variable performance (performance) is positive and not significant.

6.     Determination of latent variables Organizational Culture (culture) on latent variables Performance (performance) is positive and not significant.

7.     Determination of the latent variable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) to the hidden variable performance (perform) is positive and significant.

8.     Latent Variable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (ocb) does not mediate latent variables Achievement motivation (motiv) to variable performance (perform),

9.     Vlatent variable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (ocb) not mediate latent variables Transformational leadership (leader) to variable the performance (perform).

10.  Latent Variable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (ocb) mediates latent variablesOrganizational Culturei (culture) to variableKinerja (perform).

11.  ChangeOrganizational Citizenship Behavior (ocb) yang determined by Achievement Motivation, Transformational Leadership, and Organizational Culture by 82.6% while changing performance (perform) that determined by Achievement Motivation, Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior by 82.8%.

 

 


 

 


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